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Contents | History | Cranio-skeletal research | Mixed pop | DNA methods | DNA research problems | Sahara - Sudan- Levant | Continuity | Languages | Cultural linkages- Nubia-Egypt-Sahara | Visual images | Summary | Misc Notes | Hair | DemicDiff |
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Link to current African DNA research: (http://exploring-africa.blogspot.com/)
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1-Cannibalism and human sacrifice in Europe
Human sacrifice is well documented in Europe as among the Druids for example, but also among various Germanic tribes as well.
--Dying for the Gods: Human Sacrifice in Iron Age and Roman Europe by Miranda J. Green
Cannibalism is also documented in Europe not only in pre-historic (Villa 2005) times but well into the first century AD when quote:
"drinking human blood was a cure for epilsey. Besides blood, Europeans consumed human flesh, heart, bones (skull, burned bones and bone marrow), and other body parts and body products" (Gordon-Grube 1988, 1993)
--from "Consuming grief" By Beth A. Conklin 2001
2- THE MEDJAY AND NUBIANS
"The Medjay in the ancient Egyptian documents, or Pan Grave culture Nubians, by archaeologists, because of the characteristic shallow, oval configuration of their graves. Graves of this type have been discovered over a wide geographic area from Nubia as far north into Egypt as Saqqara.
The repertoire of grave goods associated with the Pan Grave culture is limited, but does include certain types of jewelry, such as two-stranded necklaces. These consist of faience disk beads threaded onto an upper and lower string, the strings themselves connected by a series of rectangular plaques, to the lower strand of which were attached rudimentarily formed pendants of ostrich eggshell and mother-of-pearl. These Nubians also appear to have favored earrings, worn in a pierced lobe and crafted of either silver or copper wire formed into hoops with overlapping ends or twisted in numerous spirals. It has been cogently suggested that the ancient Egyptian custom of wearing ear ornaments for the first time in their history during the Second Intermediate Period is due to their adoption of this Nubian practice, which during the course of the New Kingdom became an ancient Egyptian unisex fashion. That the Medjay are desert-Nubians is certain. Their presence has been detected in Old Kingdom contexts, but the Medjay are more frequently encountered as a distinct group during the Middle Kingdom when their designation, Medjay, appears among the named Egyptian foes in the Execration Texts of the Middle Kingdom. On the other hand, the Medjay like the Nubians of the C-Group culture interacted favorably with the Egyptians. In the case of the Medjay, they appear to be reliable allies and formed, therefore, part of the Egyptian army under Kamose in his campaigns against the Hyksos. Some have suggested that a Medjay contingent may have played a primary role in Kamose's interception of the Hyksos embassy en route to Nubia. Members of the Medjay community continued to be of service to the Egyptians of the New Kingdom, during which time they served in Egypt as the equivalent of policemen. They continued to serve in this capacity well into the reign of pharaoh Rameses IV (about 1152-1144 B.C.E.), during which time they accompanied an expedition into the Wadi Hammamat."
--Daily Life of the Nubians, Robert Steven Bianchi, 2004, pp. 102-103
"This fragment of relief comes from the tomb of one of the wives of King Mentuhotep II at Deir el-Bahri. It shows the queen with distinctly Nubian facial features and a close-cropped, curled hairstyle. We can assume that the royal house of the early Middle Kingdom, residing at Thebes, had close connections with Nubia."
"The carriers of
this specific Nubian culture are thought to have been nomads from the Eastern
Desert and are identified with the Medjay (later the Bedja) of the Egyptian
texts - a designation of the desert Nubians in contrast to the Nehesy-Nubians of
the Nile valley. This may be the correct assessment for a part of this
population. The Medja land is known, however, since the late Old Kingdom and
seems to have been situated near the Nile. Since king Nebhepetre Mentuhotep
(c. 2043-1992 BC) of the 11th
Dynasty had married, besides other Nubian consorts, a dark skinned princess from Medja with the name Ashait, one may assume that this land was an established kingdom at that time, probably sited near the Kerma kingdom and was absorbed by the latter during the Middle Kingdom."
Reference: Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Dietrich Wildung, 1997, p. 81
Asian hordes sweeping into the Nile Valley to civilize the natives?
DNA Haplogroup "E" originated in Africa and has its highest frequencies in Africa,. DNA studies show Africans with "E" migrated to populate ancient Egypt and the Nile Valley.
DNA studies of haplogroup ‘E’ show that the primary peopling of ancient Egypt was by Africans with ‘E” derived lineages, not those of Europe or the Middle East. “E” appears at higher frequencies than other individual haplotypes such as the Near Eastern “J”
in some studies of modern Egypt. (Luis 2004)
DNA Haplogroup ‘E” originated in Africa, and is the dominant DNA haplogroup on the continent. It appears in Europe and the Near East due to the Out of Africa migrations (-Cruciani et al. (2007), "Tracing Past Human Male..”
Sub-clades of haplogroup ‘E” were to move north into Egypt, North Africa & other areas of Africa. Other branches later moved into the Middle East, and Europe.
Luis et. al (2004). The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Am J Hum Genet. 2004 March; 74(3): 532-544
“Nearly all of the Y chromosomes in the sub-Saharan collections belong to groups A, B, and E. Furthermore, the vast majority of these individuals (92.2%) are members of group E , the only group observed in all nine populations.. In Egypt, the order of the polymorphic groups is slightly different: E (39.5%) , J (32.0%), G (8.8%), K2 (8.2%), and R (7.5%).. Egyptian M35 lineages are considerably larger than those of Oman.”
“A more recent dispersal out of Africa , represented by the E3b-M35 chromosomes, expanded northward during the Mesolithic (Underhill et al. 2001b). The East African origin of this lineage is supported by the much larger variance of the E3b-M35 males in Egypt versus Oman (0.5 versus 0.14; table 3)..”
"M35 chromosomes are seen in the Oman, North African, and East African populations, as well as in the South African Khoisans (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; present study) .. In contrast, the E3b*-M35 lineages appear to be confined almost exclusively to the sub-Saharan populations , except for a very low incidence in Egypt (2.7%) and a somewhat larger frequency in Ethiopia..”
“The present-day Egyptian E3b-M35 distribution most likely results from a juxtaposition of various demic episodes. Since the E3b*-M35 lineages appear to be confined mostly to the sub-Saharan populations, it is conceivable that the initial migrations toward North Africa from the south primarily involved derivative E3b-M35 lineages . These include E3b1-M78, a haplogroup especially common in Ethiopia.."
In search of 'wandering Caucasoids"
Afrocentric critic Brace debunks "Caucasoid race mix" claims for Horn of Africa peoples and notes tropically adapted peoples are usually dark-skinned and with limb elongation.
"In this regard it is interesting to note that limb proportions of Predynastic Naqada people in Upper Egypt are reported to be "Super-Negroid," meaning that the distal segments are elongated in the fashion of tropical Africans.....skin color intensification and distal limb elongation are apparent wherever people have been long-term residents of the tropics."
"An earlier generation of anthropologists tried to
explain face form in the Horn of Africa as the result of admixture from
hypothetical “wandering Caucasoids,” (Adams, 1967, 1979; MacGaffey, 1966;
Seligman, 1913, 1915, 1934), but that explanation founders on the paradox of why
that supposedly potent “Caucasoid” people contributed a dominant quantity of
genes for nose and face form but none for skin color or limb proportions. It
makes far better sense to regard the adaptively significant features seen in the
Horn of Africa as solely an in situ response on the part of separate adaptive
traits to the selective forces present in the hot dry tropics of eastern Africa.
From the observation that 12,000 years was not a long enough period of time to
produce any noticeable variation in pigment by latitude in the New World and
that 50,000 years has been barely long enough to produce the beginnings of a
gradation in Australia (Brace, 1993a), one would have to argue that the
inhabitants of the Upper Nile and the East Horn of Africa have been equatorial
for many tens of thousands of years."
(-- C.L. Brace, 1993. Clines and clusters..")
Haplogroup E is the most prevalent among Africans and links together Ethiopians, West Africans and South Africans
Afrocentric critic Mary Lefkowitz says the Egypt was peopled by people from sub-Saharan Africa, not 'Caucasoid" invaders from the north.
"Recent work on skeletons and DNA suggests that
the people who settled in the Nile valley, like all of humankind, came from
somewhere south of the Sahara; they were not (as some nineteenth-century
scholars had supposed) invaders from the North. See Bruce G. Trigger, "The
Rise of Civilization in Egypt," Cambridge History of Africa (Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 1982), vol I, pp 489-90; S. O. Y. Keita,
"Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships,"
History in Africa 20 (1993) 129-54."
(Mary Lefkotitz (1997). Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. Basic Books. pg 242)
In Black Athena Revisited, Lefkowitz finds similarity between Egyptians
and Sudanics and recommends the work of conservative anthropologist Nancy Lovell
for more research on the subject.
"not surprisingly, the Egyptian skulls were not very distance from the Jebel Moya [a Neolithic site in the southern Sudan] skulls, but were much more distance from all others, including those from West Africa. Such a study suggests a closer genetic affinity between peoples in Egypt and the northern Sudan, which were close geographically and are known to have had considerable cultural contact throughout prehistory and pharaonic history... Clearly more analyses of the physical remains of ancient Egyptians need to be done using current techniques, such as those of Nancy Lovell at the University of Alberta is using in her work.."
(- Mary Lefkowitz, "Black Athena Revisted. pp. 105-106)
Lefkowitz cites Keita 1993 in Not Out of Africa. Here is Keita on the Jebel Moya studies:
"Overall, when the Egyptian crania are evaluated in a Near Eastern (Lachish) versus African (Kerma, Jebel Moya, Ashanti) context) the affinity is with the Africans. The Sudan and Palestine are the most appropriate comparative regions which would have 'donated' people, along with the Sahara and Maghreb. Archaeology validates looking to these regions for population flow (see Hassan 1988)... Egyptian groups showed less overall affinity to Palestinian and Byzantine remains than to other African series, especially Sudanese."
S. O. Y. Keita, "Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships," History in Africa 20 (1993) 129-54
Here is the work of the anthropologist so strongly recommended by Lefkowitz, Nancy Lovell:
"There is now a sufficient body of evidence from modern studies of skeletal remains to indicate that the ancient Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians, exhibited physical characteristics that are within the range of variation for ancient and modern indigenous peoples of the Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general, the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and Nubia had the greatest biological affinity to people of the Sahara and more southerly areas." (Nancy C. Lovell, " Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and New York: Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332)
"must be placed in the context of hypotheses informed by archaeological, linguistic, geographic and other data. In such contexts, the physical anthropological evidence indicates that early Nile Valley populations can be identified as part of an African lineage, but exhibiting local variation. This variation represents the short and long term effects of evolutionary forces, such as gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection, influenced by culture and geography." ("Nancy C. Lovell, " Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and New York: Routledge, 1999). pp 328-332)
The same Nancy Lovell recommended by Lefkowitz studied dental traits among some high status persons of the key Egyptian Naqada group and found that they resembled the peoples of Nubia.
"A biological affinities study based on frequencies of cranial nonmetric traits in skeletal samples from three cemeteries at Predynastic Naqada, Egypt, confirms the results of a recent nonmetric dental morphological analysis. Both cranial and dental traits analyses indicate that the individuals buried in a cemetery characterized archaeologically as high status are significantly different from individuals buried in two other, apparently non-elite cemeteries and that the non-elite samples are not significantly different from each other. A comparison with neighboring Nile Valley skeletal samples suggests that the high status cemetery represents an endogamous ruling or elite segment of the local population at Naqada, which is more closely related to populations in northern Nubia than to neighboring populations in southern Egypt."
(T. Prowse, and N. Lovell "Concordance of cranial and dental morphological traits and evidence for endogamy in ancient Egypt". American journal of physical anthropology. 1996, vol. 101, no2, pp. 237-246 (2 p.1/4)
"In Africa, haplogroup M1 has supra-equatorial
distribution. As previously reported its
highest frequencies and diversities are found in Ethiopia in particular and in
East Africa in general. Two appreciable gradients exist. Frequencies
significantly diminished from East to West and also going South to sub-Saharan
areas. M1 is not uncommon in the Mediterranean
basin showing a peak in the Iberian Peninsula. However, it is rare in
continental Europe. Although in low frequencies, its presence in the
Middle East has been well established from the South of the Arabian Peninsula to
Anatolia and from the Levant to Iran."
"As an outgroup of the M1 genomic phylogenetic tree we used a published Indian M30 complete sequence. When this M30 lineage is compared to the rare M sequence previously detected in two Palestinians, it is evident that it belongs to the Indian super-clade M4'30, as it shares the basal mutation 12007. More specifically it belongs to the M30 branch because it also has transition 15431. M30 has a broad geographic, ethnic and linguistic range in India."
"Due to the scarcity of M lineages in the Near East and its richness in India, this region was proposed as the most probable origin of the M1 ancestor. However, recent studies based on Indian mtDNA sequences have not found any positive evidence that M1 originated in India." [24,25]
"in two recent studies in which 24 and 56 Indian M complete sequences were analyzed no ancestral M1 lineages have been found."**
 Rajkumar R, Banerjee J, Gunturi HB, Trivedi R, Kashyap VK. Phylogeny and antiquity of M macrohaplogroup inferred from complete mtDNA sequence of Indian specific lineages. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:26. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-5-26
 Mol Biol Evol. 2006. 23(3):683-90. The dazzling array of basal branches in the mtDNA macrohaplogroup M from India as inferred from complete genomes. Sun C, Kong QP, et al.
Based on the high frequency and diversity of haplogroup M in India and elsewhere in Asia, some authors have suggested (versus ) that M may have arisen in Southwest Asia [16,17,31]. Finding M1 or a lineage ancestral to M1 in India, could help to explain the presence of M1 in Africa as a result of a back migration from India. Yet, to date this has not been achieved , this study). Therefore, one cannot rule out the still most parsimonious scenario that haplogroup M arose in East Africa . Furthermore, the lack of L3 lineages other than M and N (indeed, L3M and L3N) in India is more consistent with the African launch of haplogroup M. On the other hand, one also observes that: i) M1 is the only variant of haplogroup M found in Africa; ii) M1 has a fairly restricted phylogeography in Africa, barely penetrating into sub-Saharan populations, being found predominantly in association with the Afro-Asiatic linguistic phylum – a finding that appears to be inconsistent with the distribution of sub-clades of haplogroups L3 and L2 that have similar time depths. — Mait Metspalu et al.
Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent. -Mait Metspalu
--BMC Genetics 2005, 6:41. Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Mait Metspalu,, Toomas Kivisild, et. al.
We found 489C (Table 3) in all Indian and eastern-African haplogroup M mtDNAs analysed, but not in the non-M haplogroup controls, including 20 Africans representing all African main lineages (6 L1, 4 L2, 10 L3) and 11 Asians.
These findings, and the lack of positive evidence (given the RFLP status) that the 10400 C->T transition defining M has happened more than once, suggest that it has a single common origin, but do not resolve its geographic origin. Analysis of position 10873 (the MnlI RFLP) revealed that all the M molecules (eastern African, Asian and those sporadically found in our population surveys) were 10873C (Table 3). As for the non-M mtDNAs, the ancient L1 and the L2 African-specific lineages5, as well as most L3 African mtDNAs, also carry 10873C.
Conversely, all non-M mtDNAs of non-African origin analysed so far carry 10873T. These data indicate that the **transition 10400 C-->T, which defines haplogroup M**, arose on an African background characterized by the ancestral state 10873C, which is also present in four primate (common and pygmy chimps, gorilla and orangutan) mtDNA sequences. — Semino et al.
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Egypt in Africa
Link to research papers and articles: (http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita.html)
Link to current African DNA research: (http://exploring-africa.blogspot.com/)
Google Search- other data